Albert Soboul

Biografie şi Bibliografie

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Albert Marius Soboul (April 27, 1914–September 11, 1982) was a French historian of the French Revolution and of Napoleon. A professor at the Sorbonne, he was Chair of the History of the French Revolution and author of numerous influential works of history and historical interpretation.

Life and career

Born in Ammi-Moussa (Oran), Algeria, he lost his father in November 1914, during World War I. He and his older sister Gisèle lived first in Algiers, then in Nîmes in the care of his aunt Marie after their mother died in 1922. He was educated at the lycée of Nîmes, then at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris and finally at the Sorbonne.

By 1936 he had already published a book on the revolutionary Saint-Just, written under the pseudonym "Pierre Derocles". Already involved in Communist Party activity, Soboul formally joined the party in 1939. Called up for military service that same year, he served in the horse-drawn artillery without seeing combat before being demobilized in 1940. Soon afterward he received a teaching position at the lycée of Montpellier, but was dismissed in July 1942 after organizing a student demonstration. He spent most of the war years doing research for the Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires.

After the end of the German Occupation, Soboul returned to teaching, first at Montpellier, then at the Lycée Marcelin Berthelot and finally the Lycée Henri-IV. Soboul became a close friend of the eminent historian Georges Lefebvre and wrote his 1,100-page doctoral dissertation, Les sans-culottes parisiens en l'an II (The Parisian Sans-culottes in the Year II, 1958), under his direction. Soboul was later promoted to the University of Clermont-Ferrand. In 1967, he was made Chair of the History of the French Revolution at the Sorbonne.

A committed communist throughout his life, Soboul promulgated the concept of overarching class struggle as the basis of the Revolution. Together with Lefebvre and others, Soboul is considered a principal architect of the Marxist school of historical analysis.

Published works

Soboul published numerous historical works, notably the three-volume La Civilisation de la Révolution française (The Civilization of the French Revolution).

Soboul's major works, listed by year of publication:

French publications

    * 1939: La Naissance de l'Armée nationale. 1789-1794, (under the pseudonym "Jules Leverrier") Éditions Sociales Internationales.
    * 1945: L'Armée nationale sous la Révolution, 1789-1794, Éditions France d'abord.
    * 1948: La Révolution française, 1789-1799, Éditions sociales.
    * 1958: Les Sans-culottes parisiens en l'an II. Mouvement populaire et gouvernement révolutionnaire (1793-1794), La Roche-sur-Yon, 248 p.
    * 1962: Histoire de la Révolution française, Éditions sociales.
    * 1966: Le Procès de Louis XVI, Paris, Julliard, 267 p.
    * 1967: Le Directoire et le consulat, PUF, 126 p.
    * 1968: La Première République : 1792-1804, Paris, Calmann-Lévy, 365 p.
    * 1970: La Civilisation et la Révolution française. La crise de l'Ancien Régime, Arthaud, 471 p.
    * 1972: Précis d'histoire de la Révolution française, Paris, Éditions Sociales, 530 p.
    * 1973: 1789, l'an un de la liberté, Éditions sociales, 351 p.
    * 1981: Comprendre la révolution, collection of articles, Paris, Maspero.

Posthumous publications

    * 1983: Problèmes paysans de la Révolution (1789-1848), Paris, Maspero, 442 p.
    * 1984: La Révolution française, Gallimard, 2005, 121 p.
    * 1986: Portraits de révolutionnaires, Messidor, 312 p.
    * 1989: Dictionnaire historique de la Révolution française, PUF, 1132 p.
    * 1990: La France napoléonienne, Arthaud, 419 p.
    * 1995: La Maison rurale française, Paris, Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 171 p.

English editions

This list is by year of first English edition publication. Original publisher is in parentheses, followed by most current publisher and ISBN:

    * 1964: The Parisian Sans-Culottes and the French Revolution, 1793-4 – (Clarendon Press) Greenwood Books: ISBN 0-313-20913-8.
    * 1972: The Sans-culottes: the Popular Movement and Revolutionary Government, 1793-1794 - (Doubleday/Anchor Books) Princeton University Press: ISBN 0-691-05320-0.
    * 1975: The French Revolution, 1787-1799: From the Storming of the Bastille to Napoleon - Random House; ISBN 0-394-47392-2.
    * 1977: A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 - University of California Press; ISBN 978-0-520-03419-8.
    * 1988: Understanding the French Revolution - International Publishers; ISBN 0-7178-0658-8

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