E.M. Forster

Biografie şi Bibliografie

Edward Morgan Forster OM, CH (1 January 1879 – 7 June 1970), was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist. He is known best for his ironic and well-plotted novels examining class  difference and hypocrisy and also the attitudes towards gender and homosexuality in early 20th-century British society. Forster's humanistic  impulse toward understanding and sympathy may be aptly summed up in the epigraph to his 1910 novel Howards End: "Only connect".

Key themes

Forster's views as a humanist are at the heart of his work, which often depicts the pursuit of personal connections in spite of the restrictions of contemporary society. His humanist attitude is expressed in the non-fictional essay What I Believe.

Forster's two best-known works, A Passage to India and Howards End, explore the irreconcilability of class differences. A Room with a View also shows how questions of propriety and class can make connection difficult. The novel is his most widely read and accessible work, remaining popular long after its original publication. His posthumous novel Maurice explores the possibility of class reconciliation as one facet of a homosexual relationship.

Sexuality is another key theme in Forster's works, and it has been argued that a general shift from heterosexual love to homosexual love can be detected over the course of his writing career. The foreword to Maurice describes his struggle with his own homosexuality, while similar issues are explored in several volumes of homosexually charged short stories. Forster's explicitly homosexual writings, the novel Maurice and the short-story collection The Life to Come, were published shortly after his death.

Forster is noted for his use of symbolism as a technique in his novels, and he has been criticised (as by his friend Roger Fry) for his attachment to mysticism. One example of his symbolism is the wych elm tree in Howards End; the characters of Mrs Wilcox in that novel and Mrs Moore in A Passage to India have a mystical link with the past and a striking ability to connect with people from beyond their own circles.

Notable works by Forster


    * Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905)
    * The Longest Journey (1907)
    * A Room with a View (1908)
    * Howards End (1910)
    * A Passage to India (1924)
    * Maurice (written in 1913–14, published posthumously in 1971)
    * Arctic Summer (an incomplete fragment, written in 1912–13, published posthumously in 2003)
    * Book of Love

Short stories

    * The Celestial Omnibus (and other stories) (1911)
    * The Eternal Moment and other stories (1928)
    * Collected Short Stories (1947) a combination of the above two titles, containing:
          o "The Story of a Panic"
          o "The Other Side Of The Hedge"
          o "The Celestial Omnibus"
          o "Other Kingdom"
          o "The Curate's Friend"
          o "The Road from Colonus"
          o "The Machine Stops"
          o "The Point of It"
          o "Mr Andrews"
          o "Co-ordination"
          o "The Story of the Siren"
          o "The Eternal Moment"
     * The Life to Come and other stories (1972) (posthumous) containing the following stories written between approximately 1903 and 1960:
          o "Ansell"
          o "Albergo Empedocle"
          o "The Purple Envelope"
          o "The Helping Hand"
          o "The Rock"
          o "The Life to Come"
          o "Dr Woolacott"
          o "Arthur Snatchfold"
          o "The Obelisk"
          o "What Does It Matter? A Morality"
          o "The Classical Annex"
          o "The Torque"
          o "The Other Boat"
          o "Three Courses and a Dessert: Being a New and Gastronomic Version of the Old Game of Consequences"

Plays and pageants

    * Abinger Pageant (1934)
    * England's Pleasant Land (1940)

Film scripts

    * A Diary for Timothy (1945) (directed by Humphrey Jennings, spoken by Michael Redgrave)


    * Billy Budd (1951) (based on Melville's novel, for the opera by Britten)

Collections of essays and broadcasts

    * Abinger Harvest (1936)
    * Two Cheers for Democracy (1951)

Literary criticism

    * Aspects of the Novel (1927)
    * The Feminine Note in Literature (posthumous) (2001)


    * Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson (1934)
    * Marianne Thornton, A Domestic Biography (1956)

Travel writing

    * Alexandria: A History and Guide (1922)
    * Pharos and Pharillon (A Novelist's Sketchbook of Alexandria Through the Ages) (1923)
    * The Hill of Devi (1953)

Miscellaneous writings

    * Selected Letters (1983–85)
    * Commonplace Book (1985)
    * Locked Diary (2007) (held at King's College, Cambridge)

Notable films based upon novels by Forster

    * A Passage to India (1984), dir. David Lean
    * A Room with a View (1985), dir. James Ivory
    * Maurice (1987), dir. James Ivory
    * Where Angels Fear to Tread (1991), dir. Charles Sturridge
    * Howards End (1992), dir. James Ivory

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