Joachim M. M. de Assis

Biografie şi Bibliografie

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho (June 21, 1839, Rio de Janeiro—September 29, 1908, Rio de Janeiro), was a Brazilian  novelist, poet, playwright, short story writer  and liberal  monarchist. He is widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature. However, he did not gain widespread popularity outside Brazil in his own lifetime.

Machado's works had a great influence on Brazilian literary schools of the late 19th century and 20th century. José Saramago, Carlos Fuentes, Susan Sontag and Harold Bloom are among his admirers and Bloom calls him "the supreme black literary artist to date."

Narrative style

Machado's style is unique, and several literary critics have tried to explain it since 1897. He is considered by many the greatest Brazilian writer of all times, and one of the world's greatest novelists and short story writers. His chronicles do not share the same status and his poems show a curious difference with the rest of his work: while his Machado's prose is serene and elegant, his poems are often shocking for the use of crude terms, sometimes similar to those of Augusto dos Anjos, another Brazilian writer.

Critics are divided as to the very nature of Machado de Assis's writing. Some, such as Abel Barros Baptista, classify Machado as a staunch anti-realist, and argue that his writing attacks Realism, aiming to negate the possibility of representation or even the very existence of a meaningful objective reality. Realist critics such as John Gledson are more likely to regard Machado's work as a faithful transcription of Brazilian reality—but a transcription executed with daring innovative technique. Historians such as Sydney Chalhoub argue that Machado's prose constitutes an exposé of the social, political and economic dysfunction of Second Empire Brazil. One area in which critics are largely in agreement, however, is best represented by the analysis of Roberto Schwarz. Schwarz points out that Machado's extraordinary innovations in prose narrative are driven by his need to expose the hypocrisies, contradictions and dysfunction of nineteenth-century Brazil. Schwartz argues that Machado inverts many of the narrative and intellectual conventions of his day in order to reveal the pernicious ends to which they are used.

Machado's literary style has inspired many Brazilian writers and his works have been adapted to television, theater and cinema. In 1975 the Comissão Machado de Assis ("Machado de Assis Commission"), organized by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Culture, organized and published critical editions of Machado's works, in 15 volumes. His main works were translated to many languages and great contemporary writers such as Salman Rushdie, Cabrera Infante and Carlos Fuentes and film director Woody Allen have confessed being fans of his fiction.

In his works, Machado involves the reader, breaking the so called fourth wall.

List of works

    * 1864 - Crisálidas (Chrysalids; poetry)
    * 1870 - Falenas (Phalaenae; poetry)
    * 1870 - Contos Fluminenses (Fluminensis Tales)
    * 1872 - Ressurreição (Resurrection)
    * 1873 - Histórias da Meia Noite (Stories of Midnight)
    * 1874 - A Mão e a Luva (The Hand and the Glove)
    * 1875 - Americanas (poetry)
    * 1876 - Helena
    * 1878 - Iaiá Garcia (Mistress Garcia)
    * 1881 - Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas (The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas, also known in English as Epitaph for a Small Winner)
    * 1882 - Papéis Avulsos (Single Papers)
    * 1882 - O alienista (also known in English as The alienist or The psychiatrist)
    * 1884 - Histórias sem data (Undated Stories)
    * 1891 - Quincas Borba (also known in English as Philosopher or Dog?)
    * 1896 - Várias histórias (Several Stories)
    * 1899 - Páginas recolhidas (Retained Pages) Collection of short stories including The Case of the Stick
    * 1899 - Dom Casmurro (Sir Dour)
    * 1901 - Poesias completas (Complete poetries)
    * 1904 - Esaú e Jacó (Esau and Jacob)
    * 1906 - Relíquias da Casa Velha (Relics of the Old House)
    * 1908 - Memorial de Aires (Counselor Aires's Memoirs)

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