Nathaniel Hawthorne

Biografie şi Bibliografie

Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist and short story writer.

Nathaniel Hathorne was born in 1804 in the city of Salem, Massachusetts to Nathaniel Hathorne and Elizabeth Clarke Manning Hathorne. He later changed his name to "Hawthorne", adding a "w" to dissociate from relatives including John Hathorne, a judge during the Salem Witch Trials. Hawthorne attended Bowdoin College, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824,[1] and graduated in 1825; his classmates included future president Franklin Pierce and future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Hawthorne anonymously published his first work, a novel titled Fanshawe, in 1828. He published several short stories in various periodicals which he collected in 1837 as Twice-Told Tales. The next year, he became engaged to Sophia Peabody. He worked at a Custom House and joined Brook Farm, a transcendentalist community, before marrying Peabody in 1842. The couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts, later moving to Salem, the Berkshires, then to The Wayside in Concord. The Scarlet Letter was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to The Wayside in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, leaving behind his wife and their three children.

Much of Hawthorne's writing centers around New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, and a biography of his friend Franklin Pierce.

Selected works


    * Fanshawe (published anonymously, 1828)[95]
    * The Scarlet Letter (1850)
    * The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
    * The Blithedale Romance (1852)
    * The Marble Faun (1860)
    * The Dolliver Romance (1863) (unfinished)
    * Septimius Felton; or, the Elixir of Life (Published in the Atlantic Monthly, 1872)
    * Doctor Grimshawe's Secret: A romance (unfinished), with Preface and Notes by Julian Hawthorne (1882)

Short story collections

    * Twice-Told Tales (1837)
    * Grandfather's Chair (1840)
    * Mosses from an Old Manse (1846)
    * The Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales (1852)
    * A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys (1852)
    * Tanglewood Tales (1853)
    * The Dolliver Romance and Other Pieces (1876)
    * The Great Stone Face and Other Tales of the White Mountains (1889)
    * The Celestial Railroad and Other Short Stories

Selected short stories

    * "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" (1832)
    * "Young Goodman Brown" (1835)
    * "The Gray Champion" (1835)
    * "The White Old Maid" (1835)
    * "Wakefield" (1835)
    * "The Ambitious Guest" (1835)
    * "The Minister's Black Veil" (1836)
    * "The Man of Adamant" (1837)
    * "The Maypole of Merry Mount" (1837)
    * "The Great Carbuncle" (1837)
    * "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" (1837)
    * "A Virtuoso's Collection" (May 1842)
    * "The Birth-Mark" (March 1843)
    * "Egotism; or, The Bosom-Serpent" (1843)
    * "The Artist of the Beautiful" (1844)
    * "Rappaccini's Daughter" (1844)
    * "P.'s Correspondence" (1845)
    * "Ethan Brand" (1850)
    * "Feathertop" (1852)

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