Prem Chand

Biografie şi Bibliografie

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Munshi Premchand (July 31, 1880– October 8, 1936) was a famous writer of modern Hindi-Urdu literature. In India, he is generally recognized as the foremost Hindi-Urdu writer during the early twentieth century.

Biography

Early years

Premchand was born on July 31, 1880 in the village Lamhi near Varanasi to Munshi Ajaib Lal, a clerk in the post office, and his wife Anandi. His parents named him Dhanpat Rai ("master of wealth") while his uncle, Mahabir, a rich landowner, called him Nawab (Prince), the name Premchand first chose to write under. His early education was at a local madarsa under a maulvi, where he studied Urdu. Premchand's parents died young - his mother when he was seven and his father while he was sixteen or seventeen and still a student. Premchand was left responsible for his stepmother and step-siblings.

Premchand was married at fifteen to a girl from a neighboring village but the marriage was a failure and, when Premchand left the village in 1899, the girl returned to her village. Several years later, in 1909, he married to a child widow named Shivrani Devi. This step was considered to be revolutionary at that time and Premchand had to face a lot of opposition.

Writing style

The main characteristic of Premchand's writings is his interesting story-telling and use of simple language. His novels describe the problems of the rural peasant classes. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi (as was the common practice among Hindi writers), but rather he used the dialect of the common people.

Premchand called literature a work that expresses the truths and experiences of life impressively. Presiding over the Progressive Writers' Conference in Lucknow in 1936, he said that attaching the word "Progressive" to writer was redundant, because "A writer or an artist is progressive by nature, if this was not his/her nature, he/she would not be a writer at all."

Before Premchand, Hindi literature was largely confined to raja-rani (king and queen) tales, stories of magical powers and other such escapist fantasies. It was flying in the sky of fantasy until Premchand brought it to the ground of reality. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day - communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc.

Some criticize Premchand's writings as full of too many deaths and too much misery. They believe Premchand does not stand anywhere near the contemporary literary giants of India, Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay and Rabindranath Tagore. But it should be noted that many of Premchand's stories were influenced by his own experiences with poverty and misery. His stories represented the ordinary Indian people as they were, without any embellishments. Unlike many other contemporary writers, his works didn't have any "hero" or "Mr. Nice" - they described people as they were.

Premchand was a contemporary of some other literary giants of that era like Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla and Jaishankar Prasad.

Literary works

Premchand wrote about 300 short stories and several novels as well as many essays and letters. He also wrote plays and did some translations. Many of Premchand's stories have been translated into English and Russian.

Godaan (The Gift of a Cow), his last novel, is considered one of the finest Hindi novels. The protagonist, Hori, a poor peasant, desperately longs for a cow, a symbol of wealth and prestige in rural India. The story depicts the human beings' deep-rooted beliefs, and their ability to survive and uphold these beliefs despite great misery.

In Kafan (Shroud), a poor man collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink.

Famous stories
    
    * Panch Parameshvar
    * Idgah is a very touching story of a poor orphan boy named Hamid, who lives with his grandmother. He has very little money to spend on Idgah the holy day for muslims. He goes to a fair along with his friends, who spend more money in buying candy, toys etc. He has very little money, but remembers his grandmother whose hands get hurt when she makes rotis (bread) over a fire in a clay oven. She has no chimta (tongs) to flip the rotis over the fire in the oven. He bargains for a chimta in a shop for whatever little money he has. Upon return, his grandmother is very much touched with this gesture.
    * Mantra
    * Nashaa
    * Shatranj ke khiladi
    * Poos ki raat
    * Atmaram
    * Boodhi Kaki
    * Bade Bhaisahab
    * Bade ghar ki beti
    * Kafan
    * Dikri Ke Rupai
    * Udhar Ki Ghadi
    * Namak Ka Daroga
    * Panch Fool
    * Prem Purnima
    * Ram Katha
    * Jurmana
    * The night ghost

Selected stories of Premchand have been translated from Hindi to English by Mr.Vijay Kekre & are waiting to be published.

Novels

    * Gaban
    * Bazaar-e-Husn or Seva Sadan. Bazaar-e-Husn was Premchand's first major novel; Written originally in Urdu under the title Bazaar-e-Husn, but first published in Hindi under the title Seva Sadan (i.e. The House of Service) in 1919.
    * Godaan
    * Karmabhoomi
    * Kaayakalp
    * Manorama
    * Mangalsootra incomplete
    * Nirmala
    * Pratigya
    * Premashram
    * Rangbhoomi
    * Vardaan
    * Prema

Plays

    * Karbala

Cărti de Prem Chand


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