Robert Graves

Biografie şi Bibliografie

Robert Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, translator and novelist. During his long life he produced more than 140 works. Graves' poems — together with his translations and innovative interpretations of the Greek Myths, his memoir of his early life, including his role in the First World War, Good-bye to All That, and his historical study of poetic inspiration, The White Goddess — have never been out of print.

He earned his living from writing, particularly popular historical novels such as I, Claudius; King Jesus; The Golden Fleece; and Count Belisarius. He also was a prominent translator of Classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts; his versions of The Twelve Caesars and The Golden Ass remain popular today for their clarity and entertaining style. Graves was awarded the 1934 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for both I, Claudius and Claudius the God.


Early life

Graves was born into a middle-class family in Wimbledon in south London. He was the third of five children born to Alfred Perceval Graves (1846–1931), a school inspector, Gaelic scholar, and the author of the popular song 'Father O'Flynn'; and his second wife, Amalie von Ranke (1857–1951). Graves's aristocratic mother was the eldest daughter of Heinrich Ranke, professor of medicine at the University of Munich, and his wife, Luise. She was also a great-niece of the German historian Leopold von Ranke. Robert Graves' eldest half-brother was Philip Perceval Graves, who achieved note as a journalist. A younger brother was the writer and journalist Charles Patrick Graves.


Graves received his early education at two independent schools: King's College School in Wimbledon and Copthorne Preparatory School near Crawley in West Sussex. In 1909 he won a scholarship to the independent Charterhouse School in Godalming in Surrey, where he disliked many of his fellow scholars, and thought little of his teachers. He became a school-boxing champion in two weights (welter and middle) and began to write poetry. In 1914 he attended St John's College at the University of Oxford, to which he won an exhibition (a form of scholarship).

First World War

At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Graves enlisted almost immediately, taking a commission in the Royal Welch Fusiliers (RWF). He published his first volume of poems, Over the Brazier, in 1916. He developed an early reputation as a war poet, and was one of the first to write realistic poems about his experience of front-line conflict. In later years he omitted his war poems from his collections, on the grounds that they were too obviously "part of the war poetry boom". At the Battle of the Somme he was so badly wounded by a shell-fragment through the lung that he was expected to die, and indeed was officially reported as having died of wounds. He gradually recovered, however, and apart from a brief spell back in France, he spent the remainder of the war in England.

One of Graves's very close friends at this time was the poet Siegfried Sassoon who — like Graves — was an officer in the RWF. In 1917 Sassoon tried to rebel against the war by making a public anti-war statement. Graves, who feared Sassoon could face a court martial, intervened with the military authorities and persuaded them that he was suffering from shell shock, and to treat him accordingly. As a result Sassoon was sent to Craiglockhart, the military hospital near Edinburgh, where he was treated by Dr. W. H. R. Rivers and met fellow patient Wilfred Owen. Graves also suffered from shell shock, or neurasthenia as it was sometimes called, although he was never hospitalised for it.

The friendship between Graves and Sassoon was documented in Graves' letters and biographies, and the story is fictionalised in Pat Barker's novel Regeneration. The intensity of their early relationship is demonstrated in Graves's collection Fairies and Fusiliers (1917), which contains a plethora of poems celebrating their friendship. Sassoon himself remarked upon a "heavy sexual element" within it, an observation supported by the sentimental nature of much of the surviving correspondence between the two men. Through Sassoon, Graves also became friends with Wilfred Owen, whose talent he recognised. Owen attended Graves's wedding to Nancy Nicholson in 1918, presenting him, as Graves recalled, [with] "a set of twelve Apostle spoons, the thirteenth, he joked, had been shot for cowardice".

Poetry – collections

    * Over the Brazier. London: William Heinemann, 1923; New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1923.
    * The Feather Bed. Richmond, Surrey: Hogarth Press, 1923.
    * Mock Beggar Hall. London: Hogarth Press, 1924.
    * Welchmans Hose. London: The Fleuron, 1925.
    * Poems. London: Ernest Benn, 1925.
    * The Marmosites Miscellany (as John Doyle). London: Hogarth Press, 1925.
    * Poems (1914–1926). London: William Heinemann, 1927; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1929.
    * Poems (1914–1927). London: William Heinemann
    * To Whom Else? Deyá, Majorca: Seizin Press, 1931.
    * Poems 1930–1933. London: Arthur Barker, 1933.
    * Collected Poems. London: Cassell, 1938; New York: Random House, 1938.
    * No More Ghosts: Selected Poems. London: Faber & Faber, 1940.
    * Work in Hand, with Norman Cameron and Alan Hodge. London: Hogarth Press, 1942.
    * Poems. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1943.
    * Poems 1938–1945. London: Cassell, 1945; New York: Creative Age Press, 1946.
    * Collected Poems (1914–1947). London: Cassell, 1948.
    * Poems and Satires. London: Cassell, 1951.
    * Poems 1953. London: Cassell, 1953.
    * Collected Poems 1955. New York: Doubleday, 1955.
    * Poems Selected by Himself. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957; rev. 1961, 1966, 1972, 1978.
    * The Poems of Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
    * Collected Poems 1959. London: Cassell, 1959.
    * The Penny Fiddle: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1960; New York: Doubleday, 1961.
    * More Poems 1961. London: Cassell, 1961.
    * Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1961.
    * New Poems 1962. London: Cassell, 1962; as New Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
    * The More Deserving Cases: Eighteen Old Poems for Reconsideration. Marlborough College Press, 1962.
    * Man Does, Woman Is. London: Cassell, 1964/New York:Doubleday, 1964.
    * Ann at Highwood Hall: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1964.
    * Love Respelt. London: Cassell, 1965/New York: Doubleday, 1966.
    * One Hard Look, 1965
    * Collected Poems, 1965. London: Cassell, 1965.
    * Seventeen Poems Missing from "Love Respelt". privately printed, 1966.
    * Colophon to "Love Respelt". Privately printed, 1967.
    * Poems 1965–1968. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
    * Poems About Love. London: Cassell, 1969; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
    * Love Respelt Again. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
    * Beyond Giving. privately printed, 1969.
    * Poems 1968–1970. London: Cassell, 1970; New York: Doubleday, 1971.
    * The Green-Sailed Vessel. privately printed, 1971.
    * Poems: Abridged for Dolls and Princes. London: Cassell, 1971.
    * Poems 1970–1972. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.
    * Deyá, A Portfolio. London: Motif Editions, 1972.
    * Timeless Meeting: Poems. privately printed, 1973.
    * At the Gate. privately printed, London, 1974.
    * Collected Poems 1975. London: Cassell, 1975.
    * New Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1977.
    * Selected Poems, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Penguin, 1986
    * The Centenary Selected Poems, ed. Patrick Quinn. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
    * Complete Poems Volume 1, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
    * Complete Poems Volume 2, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1996.
    * Complete Poems Volume 3, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1999.
    * The Complete Poems in One Volume, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2000.


    * My Head! My Head!. London: Sucker, 1925; Alfred. A. Knopf, New York, 1925.
    * The Shout. London: Mathews & Marrot, 1929.
    * No Decency Left. (with Laura Riding) (as Barbara Rich). London: Jonathan Cape, 1932.
    * The Real David Copperfield. London: Arthur Barker, 1933; as David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens, Condensed by Robert Graves, ed. M. P. Paine. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934.
    * I, Claudius. London: Arthur Barker, 1934; New York: Smith & Haas, 1934.
          o Sequel: Claudius the God and his Wife Messalina. London: Arthur Barker, 1934; New York: Smith & Haas, 1935.
    * Antigua, Penny, Puce. Deyá, Majorca/London: Seizin Press/Constable, 1936; New York: Random House, 1937.
    * Count Belisarius. London: Cassell, 1938: Random House, New York, 1938.
    * Sergeant Lamb of the Ninth. London: Methuen, 1940; as Sergeant Lamb's America. New York: Random House, 1940.
          o Sequel: Proceed, Sergeant Lamb. London: Methuen, 1941; New York: Random House, 1941.
    * The Story of Marie Powell: Wife to Mr. Milton. London: Cassell, 1943; as Wife to Mr Milton: The Story of Marie Powell. New York: Creative Age Press, 1944.
    * The Golden Fleece. London: Cassell, 1944; as Hercules, My Shipmate, New York: Creative Age Press, 1945.
    * King Jesus. New York: Creative Age Press, 1946; London: Cassell, 1946.
    * Watch the North Wind Rise. New York: Creative Age Press, 1949; as Seven Days in New Crete. London: Cassell, 1949.
    * The Islands of Unwisdom. New York: Doubleday, 1949; as The Isles of Unwisdom. London: Cassell, 1950.
    * Homer's Daughter. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1955.
    * Catacrok! Mostly Stories, Mostly Funny. London: Cassell, 1956.
    * They Hanged My Saintly Billy. London: Cassell, 1957; New York: Doubleday, 1957.
    * Collected Short Stories. Doubleday: New York, 1964; Cassell, London, 1965.
    * An Ancient Castle. London: Peter Owen, 1980.

Other works

    * On English Poetry. New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1922; London: Heinemann, 1922.
    * The Meaning of Dreams. London: Cecil Palmer, 1924; New York: Greenberg, 1925.
    * Poetic Unreason and Other Studies. London: Cecil Palmer, 1925.
    * Contemporary Techniques of Poetry: A Political Analogy. London: Hogarth Press, 1925.
    * Another Future of Poetry. London: Hogarth Press, 1926.
    * Impenetrability or The Proper Habit of English. London: Hogarth Press, 1927.
    * The English Ballad: A Short Critical Survey. London: Ernest Benn, 1927; revised as English and Scottish Ballads. London: William Heinemann, 1957; New York: Macmillan, 1957.
    * Lars Porsena or The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1927; E.P. Dutton, New York, 1927; revised as The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1936.
    * A Survey of Modernist Poetry (with Laura Riding). London: William Heinemann, 1927; New York: Doubleday, 1928.
    * Lawrence and the Arabs. London: Jonathan Cape, 1927; as Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
    * A Pamphlet Against Anthologies (with Laura Riding). London: Jonathan Cape, 1928; as Against Anthologies. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
    * Mrs. Fisher or The Future of Humour. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1928.
    * Good-bye to All That: An Autobiography. London: Jonathan Cape, 1929; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1930; rev., New York: Doubleday, 1957; London: Cassell, 1957; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1960.
    * But It Still Goes On: An Accumulation. London: Jonathan Cape, 1930; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1931.
    * T. E. Lawrence to His Biographer Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1938; London: Faber & Faber, 1939.
    * The Long Weekend (with Alan Hodge). London: Faber & Faber, 1940; New York: Macmillan, 1941.
    * The Reader Over Your Shoulder (with Alan Hodge). London: Jonathan Cape, 1943; New York: Macmillan, 1943.
    * The White Goddess. London: Faber & Faber, 1948; New York: Creative Age Press, 1948; rev., London: Faber & Faber, 1952, 1961; New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1958.
    * The Common Asphodel: Collected Essays on Poetry 1922–1949. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949.
    * Occupation: Writer. New York: Creative Age Press, 1950; London: Cassell, 1951.
    * The Nazarene Gospel Restored (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1953; New York: Doubleday, 1954.
    * The Greek Myths. London: Penguin, 1955; Baltimore: Penguin, 1955.
    * The Crowning Privilege: The Clark Lectures, 1954–1955. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1956.
    * Adam's Rib. London: Trianon Press, 1955; New York: Yoseloff, 1958.
    * Jesus in Rome (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1957.
    * Steps. London: Cassell, 1958.
    * 5 Pens in Hand. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
    * Food for Centaurs. New York: Doubleday, 1960.
    * Greek Gods and Heroes. New York: Doubleday, 1960; as Myths of Ancient Greece. London: Cassell, 1961.
    * Selected Poetry and Prose (ed. James Reeves). London: Hutchinson, 1961.
    * Oxford Addresses on Poetry. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1962.
    * The Siege and Fall of Troy. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1963.
    * The Big Green Book. New York: Crowell Collier, 1962; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1978. Illustrated by Maurice Sendak
    * Hebrew Myths. The Book of Genesis (with Raphael Patai). New York: Doubleday, 1964; London: Cassell, 1964.
    * Majorca Observed. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
    * Mammon and the Black Goddess. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
    * Two Wise Children. New York: Harlin Quist, 1966; London: Harlin Quist, 1967.
    * The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam (with Omar Ali-Shah). London: Cassell, 1967.
    * Poetic Craft and Principle. London: Cassell, 1967.
    * The Poor Boy Who Followed His Star. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
    * Greek Myths and Legends. London: Cassell, 1968.
    * The Crane Bag. London: Cassell, 1969.
    * On Poetry: Collected Talks and Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
    * Difficult Questions, Easy Answers. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.
    * In Broken Images: Selected Letters 1914–1946, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Hutchinson, 1982
    * Between Moon and Moon: Selected Letters 1946–1972, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Hutchinson, 1984
    * Collected Writings on Poetry, ed. Paul O'Prey, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
    * Complete Short Stories, ed. Lucia Graves, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
    * Some Speculations on Literature, History, and Religion, ed. Patrick Quinn, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2000.
    * An Anthology from X (Oxford University Press 1988). X (magazine) ran from 1959–62. Edited by the poet David Wright & the painter Patrick Swift. Contributors include Graves, W.H. Auden, Samuel Beckett, et al.

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