Upton Sinclair

Biografie şi Bibliografie

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Upton Sinclair, Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968), was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American  author who wrote over 90 books in many genres. He achieved popularity in the first half of the 20th century, acquiring particular fame for his 1906 muckraking  novel The Jungle. It exposed conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

Life

Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland to Upton Beall Sinclair and Priscilla Harden. His father was a liquor salesman whose alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Sinclair had wealthy grandparents with whom he often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the poor lived during the late nineteenth century. Living in two social settings affected him greatly and highly influenced his novels. In 1888, the Sinclair family moved to the Bronx, where Sinclair entered the City College of New York at the age of thirteen, writing novels and magazine articles to pay for his tuition.

Sinclair married his first wife, Meta Fuller, in 1900.

In 1904 Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his fictional exposé, The Jungle. When it appeared in 1906, it became a best-seller. With the income from The Jungle, Sinclair founded a utopian colony known as Helicon Hall in Englewood, New Jersey, and ran as a Socialist candidate for Congress. The colony burned down under suspicious circumstances within a year.

Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the poet Harry Kemp, later known as the Dunes Poet of Provincetown, Massachusetts. After his wife left him, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman who was later tested for psychic abilities. After her death, Sinclair married Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967). Late in life, he moved from California to Buckeye, Arizona and then to Bound Brook, New Jersey. Sinclair died in 1968 and is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D.C., next to his third wife, who died a year before him.

The novels in the Lanny Budd series are:

    * World's End, 1940
    * Between Two Worlds, 1941
    * Dragon's Teeth, 1942
    * Wide Is the Gate, 1943
    * The Presidential Agent, 1944
    * Dragon Harvest, 1945
    * A World to Win, 1946
    * A Presidential Mission, 1947
    * One Clear Call, 1948
    * O Shepherd, Speak!, 1949
    * The Return of Lanny Budd, 1953

[edit] Works

    * Courtmartialed - 1898
    * Saved By the Enemy - 1898
    * The Fighting Squadron - 1898
    * A Prisoner of Morro - 1898
    * A Soldier Monk - 1898
    * A Gauntlet of Fire - 1899
    * Holding the Fort (story) - 1899
    * A Soldier's Pledge - 1899
    * Wolves of the Navy - 1899
    * Springtime and Harvest - 1901
    * The Journal of Arthur Stirling - 1903
    * Off For West Point - 1903
    * From Port to Port - 1903
    * On Guard - 1903
    * A Strange Cruise - 1903
    * The West Point Rivals - 1903
    * A West Point Treasure - 1903
    * A Cadet's Honor - 1903
    * Cliff, the Naval Cadet - 1903
    * The Cruise of the Training Ship - 1903
    * Prince Hagen - 1903
    * Manassas - 1904
    * A Captain of Industry - 1906
    * The Jungle - 1906
    * The Millennium (drama) - 1907
    * The Overman - 1907
    * The Industrial Republic - 1907
    * The Metropolis - 1908
    * The Money Changers - 1908
    * Samuel The Seeker - 1909
    * Good Health and How We Won It - 1909
    * Love's Pilgrimage - 1911
    * The Fasting Cure - 1911
    * The Machine (novel) - 1911
    * Damaged Goods - 1913
    * Sylvia - 1913
    * The Pot Boiler - 1913 (Blue book series)
    * Sylvia's Marriage - 1915
    * The Cry for Justice - 1915
    * King Coal - 1917
    * The Profits of Religion - 1917
    * The Goslins - 1918
    * Jimmie Higgins - 1919
    * The Brass Check - 1919
    * Debs and the Poets - 1920
    * 100% - The Story of a Patriot - 1920
    * The Spy - 1920
    * The Book of Life - 1921
    * The McNeal-Sinclair Debate on Socialism - 1921
    * They Call Me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming - 1922
    * The Goose-step: A Study of American Education - 1923
    * Hell - 1923
    * The Millennium (novel) - 1924
    * The Goslings - 1924
    * Singing Jailbirds (play in four acts) - 1924
    * Bill Porter - 1925
    * Mammonart - 1925
    * Letters to Judd - 1925
    * Spokesman's Secretary - 1926
    * Money Writes! - 1927
    * Oil! - 1927
    * Boston, volume 1 - 1928
    * Boston, volume 2 - 1928
    * Mountain City - 1930
    * Mental Radio - 1930
    * Roman Holiday - 1931
    * The Wet Parade - 1931
    * American Outpost - 1933
    * The Way Out - 1933
    * Upton Sinclair presents William Fox - 1933
    * Immediate Epic - 1933
    * We, People of America - 1933
    * The Epic Plan for California - 1934
    * I, Governor of California - 1934
    * The Lie Factory Starts - 1934
    * Epic Answers - 1934
    * The Book of Love - 1934
    * I, Candidate For Governor: And How I Got Licked - 1935
    * Depression Island - 1935
    * Co-op: a Novel of Living Together - 1936
    * What God Means to Me - 1936
    * No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid - 1937
    * The Gnomobile- 1937
    * The Flivver King - 1937
    * Damaged Goods (based on a Eugène Brieux play); basis for 1937 movie
    * Little Steel - 1938
    * Our Lady - 1938
    * Letters to a Millionaire - 1939
    * Expect No Peace - 1939
    * Marie Antoinette (novel) - 1939
    * Telling The World - 1939
    * Your Million Dollars - 1939
    * World's End - 1940
    * Between Two Worlds - 1941
    * Dragon's Teeth - 1942
    * Wide Is the Gate - 1943
    * The Presidential Agent - 1944
    * Dragon Harvest - 1945
    * A World to Win - 1946
    * A Presidential Mission - 1947
    * A Giant's Strength - 1948
    * Limbo on the Loose - 1948
    * One Clear Call - 1948
    * O Shepherd, Speak! - 1949
    * Another Pamela - 1950
    * The Enemy Had It Too - 1950
    * Schenk Stefan! - 1951
    * A Personal Jesus - 1952
    * The Return of Lanny Budd - 1953
    * The Cup of Fury - 1956
    * What Didymus Did - UK 1954 / It Happened to Didymus - US 1958
    * Theirs be the Guilt - 1959
    * My Lifetime in Letters - 1960
    * Affectionately Eve - 1961
    * The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair - 1962, assisted by Maeve Elizabeth Flynn III
    * The Naturewoman - date unknown, Blue Book series
    * The Second-Storey Man -date unknown, Blue Book series
    * The Coal War - 1976



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