Werner Bergengruen

Biografie şi Bibliografie

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Werner Bergengruen (September 16, 1892 – September 4, 1964) was a Baltic German novelist.

Bergengruen was born in Riga, Livonia. After growing up in Lübeck and attending the Katharineum, he started studying theology in Marburg in 1911. He later changed to studying Germanistics and art history, but failed to graduate; he then moved to Munich. He served as a lieutenant during World War I and joined the Baltische Landeswehr in 1919 to fight against the Bolsheviks.

On 4 October 1919 he married Charlotte Hensel (1896-1990), a descendant of the composer Fanny Mendelssohn, and the daughter of the mathematician Kurt Hensel. From the marriage there were four children, Olaf, Luise, Maria and Alexander.

Bergengruen started writing novels and short stories in 1923 and decided to become a full-time writer in 1927. While his earlier works were of a more contemplative nature and pondered metaphysical and religious questions, the Nazis' rise to power led him to write more political works. His most successful novel, Der Großtyrann und das Gericht, published in 1935, is set in the Renaissance era, but the story of a merciless tyrant playing with the weaknesses of his underlings was often seen as a clear allegory on Germany's political situation. This interpretation is doubtful, though, as most of the novel was written before the Nazi takeover in 1933. Bergengruen was expelled from the Reichsschrifttumskammer in 1937 for being unfit to contribute to German culture. Although Bergengruen was politically a staunch conservative, his Catholicism—as well as the fact that his wife was of partly Jewish heritage—contributed to his alienation from the Nazi regime.

In 1942, after his house in Munich was destroyed by bombs, Bergengruen moved to Achenkirch. After World War II, he lived in Switzerland, Rome, and finally Baden-Baden, where he died in 1964.

Opera

    * 1923: Legea lui Atum ("Das Gesetz des Atum");
    * 1927: Imperiul în ruine ("Das Kaiserreich in Trümmern");
    * 1930: Ducele Carol Temerarul ("Herzog Karl der Kühne");
    * 1930: Călugărul nebun ("Der tolle Mönch");
    * 1930: Capri ("Capri");
    * 1930: Săptămâna din labirint ("Die Woche im Labyrinth");
    * 1931: Condeiul de aur ("Der goldene Griffel");
    * 1932: Copacul călător ("Der Wanderbaum");
    * 1933: Proba de foc ("Die Feuerprobe");
    * 1934: Călătorie germană ("Deutsche Reise");
    * 1935: Marele tiran şi judecata ("Das Großtyrann und das Gericht");
    * 1936: Trandafirul din Ierihon ("Die Rose von Jericho");
    * 1937: Cei trei şoimi ("Die drei Falken");
    * 1938: Fructul ascuns ("Die verborgene Frucht");
    * 1939: E.T.A. Hoffmann ("E.T.A. Hoffmann");
    * 1940: În cer ca pe pământ ("Am Himmel wie auf Erden");
    * 1942: Povestea căutătorilor de comori ("Schatzgräbergeschichte");
    * 1946: Blesteme şi binecuvântări ("Zauber- und Segenssprüche");
    * 1946: Trandafirul sultanului ("Die Sultansrose");
    * 1949: Semnul focului ("Das Feuerzeichen");
    * 1949: Diavolul din palatul de iarnă ("Der Teufel im Winterpalais");
    * 1952: Ultimul căpitan de cavalerie ("Der letzte Rittmeister");
    * 1954: Nevasta căpitanului de cavalerie ("Die Rittmeisterin");
    * 1962: A treia cunună ("Der dritte Kranz");
    * 1937: Împăratul etern ("Der ewige Kaiser");
    * 1945: Dies irae ("Dies irae");
    * 1952: Elegie lombardică ("Lombardische Elegie");
    * 1952: Ştiri despre pasărea Phoenix ("Nachricht vom Vogel Phönix");
    * 1952: Secretul rămâne ("Das Geheimnis verbleibt");
    * 1955: Gemenii din Franţa ("Die Zwillinge aus Frankreich");
    * 1959: Furie, timp şi veşnicie ("Zorn, Zeit und Ewigkeit").

Cărti de Werner Bergengruen


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